Access Control is the process by which access is provided to those who are autorised to and denyal to those who are not. Till a time keys were the primary security control mechanism in the world. But as time went on the technology advanced taking care of keys became difficult and then developed the electronic access controls.
Access controls are safe for security of property and keeps one update and hassle free. It is a must in organisations where there are variable security levels, access areas or automation requirements. The utility control as well as employee or asset monitoring through a presice system reduces costs and increases the efficiency.
The electronic access control provides computerized security to a particular entry area. Reliable control over who is allowed to pass through a particular entry at a particular time can reduce a company's risk and liability.
The Access control software allows the entry or denial of a person . Each person will be granted a code or a card which is confirmed by a reader or a keypad. The various access control devices are :-
Card readers, Biometric systems (Fingerprint, Iris, Facial recognition, Hand Geometry), RIFD Cards, Infra Red Sensors, Magnetic & Capacitence sensors, CMS Central Monitoring Systems, Merchendise Protection, Pressure mats, Wireless Alarm Systems and more....
The Access Controls provide multipurpose and it ought to be IT friendly, non-redundant and scalable. What can be defined as a good access control system should also control the elevators, CCTVs, Fire alarms, security alarms and also the gate automation systems. With constant changes in the field of security the access control systems are also getting more powerful.
An Access Control point can be a elevator, parking barrier, door, etc which has to be given permission which can be elctronically controlled. Mostly the access point is the door. There are many parts of a access control system. The most basic is the electronic lock which has a awitch to open it. This works not with a key but a reader. The reader has a code pad where the code is entered. Readers do not usually make an access decision but send a card number to an access control panel that verifies the number against an access list.
To monitor the door position a magnetic door switch is used. Only the entry is controlled not the exit. To exit a Request-to-exit device can be a push button or a motion detector. When the button is pressed the motion detector detects the motion in the doo and the door alarm ignored the door is opened. In cases where the lock must be electrically unlocked on exit, the request-to-exit device also unlocks the door.
A credential can be a pin or number or a badge or a biometric feature or a combination of these. Mostly it is a card with magnetic stripe, bar code, Wiegand, 125 kHz proximity, contact smart cards, and contactless smart cards. Biometric technologies includes fingerprint, facial recognition, iris recognition, retinal scan, voice, and hand geometry.
A bar code as dicussed above is a series of alternate black and white bands which is to be read by a optical scanner. The width of the lines is the protocol used and code 39 is the most popular in security industry. This method is cheap, easy to generate making it suseptible to fraud.
Magnetic stripe technology, usually called mag-stripe, is so named because of the stripe of magnetic oxide tape that is laminated on a card. There are three tracks of data on the magnetic stripe. Typically the data on each of the tracks follows a specific encoding standard, but it is possible to encode any format on any track. A mag-stripe card is cheap compared to other card technologies and is easy to program.
Wiegand card technology is a patented technology using embedded ferromagnetic wires strategically positioned to create a unique pattern that generates the identification number. Like magnetic stripe or bar code, this card must be swiped through a reader to be read.
There are two types of Smart cards - contact and contactless. The diffrence between the two is the manner with which the microprocessor works. A contact smart card has eight contacts which has to be physically be inserted into the readr for the information to be read. A contactless smart card uses the same radio-based technology as the proximity card with the exception of the frequency band used
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New commercial products include: Integrated Digital Video Manager (DVM), Enterprise Network Recorder (NVR), Rapid Eye LT and the LobbyWorks visitor management system. These new products are all designed to drive up revenues while making installations and maintenance easier.
There are three main components in Access control systems. The reader, controller and electric lock release. The reader is responsible for reading the identity, these are many sophisticated solutions for the same.